Abkhazia (Àdàkọ:Lang-ab Apsny, IPA /apʰsˈnɨ/; Àdàkọ:Lang-ka Apkhazeti; Rọ́síà: Абхазия Abkhaziya) is a disputed territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.

Republic of Abkhazia

Аҧсны Аҳәынҭқарра (Аҧсны) (Abkhazian)
Apsny Ahwyntkarra (Apsny)
Республика Абхазия (Абхазия) (Russian)
Respublika Abkhaziya (Abkhaziya)
აფხაზეთი (Georgian)
Emblem ilẹ̀ Abkhazia
Orin ìyìn: Аиааира (Abkhaz)
Abkhazia (orange), and Georgia proper (grey)
Abkhazia (orange), and Georgia proper (grey)
àti ìlú tótóbijùlọ
Àwọn èdè ìṣẹ́ọbaAbkhaz1 and Russian
Orúkọ aráàlúAbkhaz, Abkhazian
ÌjọbaUnitary republic
• President
Alexander Ankvab
Leonid Lakerbaia
AṣòfinPeople's Assembly
Partially recognised independence from Georgia and the Soviet Union[1][2][3]
• Georgian annulment of all Soviet-era laws and treaties
20 June 1990
• Declaration of sovereignty2
25 August 1990
• Georgian declaration of independence
9 April 1991
26 December 1991
26 November 1994
3 October 1999
• Act of state independence3
12 October 1999
26 August 2008
• Total
8,660 km2 (3,340 sq mi)
• 2011 census
240,705 (disputed)
• Ìdìmọ́ra
28/km2 (72.5/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2009 estimate
• Total
$500 million[4]
OwónínáAbkhazian apsar, Russian ruble5 (RUB)
Ibi àkókòUTC+3 (MSK)
Ojúọ̀nà ọkọ́right
Àmì tẹlifóònù+7-840/940[5]
  1. The Russian language is recognised as a language of state and other institutions (art. 6 of the Constitution) and is widely used.
  2. Annulled by Georgia immediately thereafter.
  3. Establishing retro-actively de jure independence since the 1992–1993 war.
  4. By Russia. Followed by 5 other UN states since.
  5. De facto currency, several Abkhazian apsar commemorative coins have been issued. The apsar is on a fixed exchange rate, pegged to the Russian ruble (1 = 0.10 apsar).

Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny.[6][7][8][9][10] This status is recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, Tuvalu and Vanuatu[11][12] and also by the partially recognised states of South Ossetia, Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh.[13]



  1. Site programming: Denis Merkushev. "Акт о государственной независимости Республики Абхазия". Abkhaziagov.org. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  2. "Апсныпресс – государственное информационное агенство Республики Абхазия". Apsnypress.info. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  3. "Abkhazia: Review of Events for the Year 1996". UNPO. 31 January 1997. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  4. "Abkhazia calculated GDP – News". GeorgiaTimes.info. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  5. "Abkhazia remains available by Georgian phone codes". Today.Az. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  6. Art. 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Abkhazia
  7. Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna. Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army. Rand Corporation, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8330-3260-7.
  8. Abkhazia: ten years on. By Rachel Clogg, Conciliation Resources, 2001.
  9. Emmanuel Karagiannis. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7007-1481-0.
  10. The Guardian. Georgia up in arms over Olympic cash
  11. See: International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence.
  12. Barry, Ellen (15 December 2009). "Abkhazia Is Recognised – by Nauru". New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/16/world/europe/16georgia.html. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  13. "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian). Newsru. 17 November 2006. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2008.