Ìyàtọ̀ láàrin àwọn àtúnyẹ̀wò "Ìtanná"

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{{electromagnetism|cTopic=Electricity}}
[[File:Lightning3.jpg|right|thumb|250px|alt=Multiple lightning strikes on a city at night|[[Lightning]] is one of the most dramatic effects of electricity.]]
'''Ìtanná'''
'''Electricity''' is the [[science]], [[engineering]], [[technology]] and physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of [[electric charge]]s. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known ''electrical'' effects, such as [[lightning]], [[static electricity]], [[electromagnetic induction]] and the flow of [[electrical current]] in an electrical wire. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of [[electromagnetic radiation]] such as [[radio waves]].
 
In electricity, charges produce [[electromagnetic field]]s which act on other charges. Electricity occurs due to several types of physics:
* '''[[electric charge]]''': a property of some [[subatomic particle]]s, which determines their [[electromagnetic interaction]]s. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.
* '''[[electric current]]''': a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, typically measured in [[ampere]]s.
* '''[[electric field]]''' (see [[electrostatics]]): an especially simple type of electromagnetic field produced by an electric charge even when it is not moving (i.e., there is no [[electric current]]). The electric field produces a force on other charges in its vicinity. Moving charges additionally produce a [[magnetic field]].
* '''[[electric potential]]''': the capacity of an electric field to do [[Work (mechanics)|work]] on an [[electric charge]], typically measured in [[volt]]s.
* '''[[electromagnets]]''': electrical currents generate magnetic fields, and changing magnetic fields generate electrical currents
 
In [[electrical engineering]], electricity is used for:
* '''[[electric power]]''' (which can refer imprecisely to a quantity of [[electrical potential energy]] or else more correctly to electrical [[power (physics)|energy per time]]) that is provided commercially, by the [[electrical power industry]]. In a loose but common use of the term, "electricity" may be used to mean "wired for electricity" which means a working [[electrical connection|connection]] to an electric [[power station]]. Such a connection grants the user of "electricity" access to the [[electric field]] present in [[electrical wiring]], and thus to electric power.
* '''[[electronics]]''' which deals with [[electrical circuit]]s that involve [[active component|active electrical component]]s such as [[vacuum tube]]s, [[transistor]]s, [[diode]]s and [[integrated circuit]]s, and associated passive interconnection technologies.
 
Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though advances in the science were not made until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity however remained few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that [[Electrical engineering|engineers]] were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society. Electricity's extraordinary versatility as a means of providing energy means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include [[motive power|transport]], [[HVAC|heating]], [[electric lighting|lighting]], [[Telecommunication|communications]], and [[computation]]. Electrical power is the backbone of modern industrial society, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future.<ref>
{{Citation
| first = D.A. | last = Jones
| title = Electrical engineering: the backbone of society
| journal = Proceedings of the IEE: Science, Measurement and Technology
| pages = 1–10
| volume = 138
| issue = 1
| doi = 10.1049/ip-a-3.1991.0001
| year = 1991}}
</ref>
 
The word ''electricity'' is from the [[New Latin]] ''ēlectricus'', "amber-like"{{Ref label|A|a|none}}, coined in the year 1600 from the Greek ''ήλεκτρον'' (electron) meaning [[amber]], because electrical effects were produced classically by rubbing amber.