Betty Williams

Betty Williamss ( 22 Oṣu Karun 1943 - 17 Oṣu Kẹta ọjọ 2020) jẹ ajafitafita alafia lati Northern Ireland. O jẹ alabaṣiṣẹpọ pẹlu Mairead Corrigan ti ẹbun Nobel Alafia ni ọdun 1976 fun iṣẹ rẹ gẹgẹ bi alajọṣepọ ti Community of Peace People, agbari kan ti a ṣe igbẹhin si igbega ipinnu alaafia si Awọn Wahala ni Ariwa Ireland.

Williams (1978)

Williams ṣe olori Ile -iṣẹ Awọn ọmọde Agbaye ati pe o jẹ Alakoso Ile -iṣẹ Aanu Agbaye fun Awọn ọmọde International. O tun jẹ Alaga ti Ile -ẹkọ fun Tiwantiwa Asia ni Washington DC [3] O ṣe ikẹkọ ni ibigbogbo lori awọn akọle ti alaafia, eto-ẹkọ, aṣa-laarin ati oye igbagbọ-igbagbọ, alatako, ati awọn ẹtọ ọmọde.

Williams jẹ ọmọ ẹgbẹ oludasile ti Apejọ Nobel Laureate Summit, eyiti o ti waye lododun lati ọdun 2000. [4]

Ni ọdun 2006, Williams di oludasile Ipilẹ Awọn Obirin Nobel pẹlu Nobel Peace Laureates Mairead Corrigan Maguire, Shirin Ebadi, Wangari Maathai, Jody Williams ati Rigoberta Menchú Tum. Awọn obinrin mẹfa wọnyi, ti o ṣoju fun Ariwa ati Gusu Amẹrika, Aarin Ila -oorun, Yuroopu ati Afirika, mu awọn iriri wọn papọ ni ipa iṣọkan fun alafia pẹlu idajọ ati dọgbadọgba. [5] O jẹ ibi -afẹde ti Ipilẹṣẹ Awọn Obirin Nobel lati ṣe iranlọwọ lati teramo iṣẹ ti a ṣe ni atilẹyin awọn ẹtọ awọn obinrin kakiri agbaye. Williams tun jẹ ọmọ ẹgbẹ ti PeaceJam.

Igbesi aye ibẹrẹÀtúnṣe

A bi Williams ni ọjọ 22 Oṣu Karun ọdun 1943 ni Belfast, Northern Ireland. Baba rẹ ṣiṣẹ bi alapata ati iya rẹ jẹ iyawo ile. Betty gba ẹkọ alakọbẹrẹ rẹ lati Ile -iwe alakọbẹrẹ St.Teresa ni Belfast o si lọ si St Dominic's Grammar School for Girls fun awọn ẹkọ ile -iwe alakọbẹrẹ rẹ. Nigbati o pari ẹkọ ikẹkọ rẹ, o gba iṣẹ ti olugba gbigba ọfiisi. [1] [2]

Ṣọwọn fun akoko ni Northern Ireland, baba rẹ jẹ Alatẹnumọ ati iya rẹ jẹ Katoliki; ipilẹ idile lati eyiti Williams sọ nigbamii pe o ti ni ifarada ẹsin ati ibú iran ti o jẹ ki o ṣiṣẹ fun alafia. . Williams ka iriri yii fun igbaradi rẹ lati bajẹ ri ẹgbẹ alafia tirẹ, eyiti o dojukọ lori ṣiṣẹda awọn ẹgbẹ alafia ti o jẹ ti awọn alatako iṣaaju, ṣiṣe adaṣe awọn ọna igbekele, ati idagbasoke ilana alafia ipilẹ.

Igbesi aye ara ẹÀtúnṣe

Ni akoko ti o gba ẹbun Nobel, Williams ṣiṣẹ bi olugba ati pe o n gbe awọn ọmọ rẹ mejeeji pẹlu ọkọ akọkọ Ralph Williams. Igbeyawo yi tuka ni ọdun 1981. [2] O gbeyawo oniṣowo James Perkins ni Oṣu kejila ọdun 1982; wọn ngbe ni Florida ni Amẹrika. [2] [3]

Ni 2004, o pada wa lati gbe ni Northern Ireland. Williams ku ni ọjọ 17 Oṣu Kẹta ọjọ 2020, ni ọjọ -ori ọdun 76 ni Belfast. [4] [5] [6]

Ẹbẹ alaafiaÀtúnṣe

Williams ni a fa sinu gbagede gbogbogbo lẹhin ti o jẹri iku awọn ọmọde mẹta ni ọjọ 10 Oṣu Kẹjọ ọdun 1976, nigbati ọkọ ayọkẹlẹ kọlu wọn ti awakọ wọn, [[[Ọmọ ogun Irish Republikani Ọmọ ogun | Irish Republic Army]] (IRA) paramilitary ti a npè ni Danny Lennon, ni o ti yin ibon pa ni ina pada nipasẹ ọmọ -ogun kan ti Ẹgbẹ Aarin Royal Aala Royalawọn iroyin | url = http: //news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/n nort_ireland/7937484.stm | akọle = Awọn iṣoro di igbe apejọ | ọjọ = 11 Oṣu Kẹwa 2009 | nipasẹ = news.bbc.co.uk }} [https: //web.archive.org/web/20110715060537/http: //www.peaceproposal.com/Betty1.html "'Ọmọ Kọọkan Jẹ Tiwa': Ọna Tuntun siwaju fun awọn ọmọ agbaye"] Check |archive-url= value (help). Archived from [http: //www.peaceproposal.com/Betty1.html the original] Check |url= value (help) on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). IRA akoko, lori iṣẹ apinfunni lati pa awọn ọmọ ogun Gẹẹsi, ṣi ina lati ẹhin ọkọ ayọkẹlẹ yiyara lori aabo ẹsẹ Ẹsẹ kan. Wọn padanu. Awọn ẹlẹsẹ ẹsẹ pada ina ti o pa awakọ ọkọ ayọkẹlẹ, ọdọmọkunrin kan ti a npè ni Danny Lennon.  Unknown parameter |akọkọ= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |wiwọle-ọjọ= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |ọjọ ibi ipamọ= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |kẹhin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akede= ignored (help) </ bi o ti yi igun naa si ile rẹ, o rii awọn ọmọ Maguire mẹta ti ọkọ ayọkẹlẹ ti n yipada ti fọ ati pe o yara lati ṣe iranlọwọ. Iya wọn, Anne Maguire, ti o wa pẹlu awọn ọmọde, nikẹhin mu ẹmi tirẹ ni Oṣu Kini ọdun 1980. <ref name = "telegraph-obit"> {{cite news | url = https: //www.telegraph.co.uk/ obituaries/2020/03/19/betty-williams-winner-nobel-peace-Prize-work-north-ireland/| title = Betty Williams, to gba Ebun Nobel Alafia fun ise re ni Northern Ireland-obituary | irohin = The Teligirafu | ọjọ = 19 Oṣu Kẹta 2020

Iṣẹlẹ naa dun Williams pupọ pe laarin ọjọ meji ti iṣẹlẹ iṣẹlẹ, o ti gba awọn ibuwọlu 6,000 lori ẹbẹ fun alaafia ati pe o ni akiyesi media jakejado. Pẹlu Corrigan, o ṣe ipilẹ Awọn Obirin fun Alaafia; eyiti, pẹlu Ciaran McKeown, nigbamii di 'Community of Peace People' . [7]

Laipẹ Williams ṣeto irin -ajo alaafia kan si awọn ibojì ti awọn ọmọde ti o pa, eyiti o lọ nipasẹ 10,000 Alatẹnumọ ati awọn obinrin Katoliki. Bibẹẹkọ, irin -ajo alaafia jẹ idamu ni agbara nipasẹ awọn ọmọ ẹgbẹ ti IRA, ẹniti o fi ẹsun wọn pe wọn jẹ “dupe ti Ilu Gẹẹsi”. [8] Ni ọsẹ to nbọ, Williams ṣe itọsọna irin-ajo miiran ni Ormeau Park ti o pari ni aṣeyọri laisi iṣẹlẹ-ni akoko yii pẹlu awọn olukopa 20,000. [3]

Ni akoko yẹn, Williams ṣalaye nkan wọnyi: <orukọ ref = "telegraph-obit"/>

Ikede ti Eniyan AlafiaÀtúnṣe

Ikede akọkọ ti Eniyan Alafia

  • A ni ifiranṣẹ ti o rọrun si agbaye lati ẹgbẹ yii fun Alaafia.
  • A fẹ lati gbe ati nifẹ ati kọ awujọ ododo ati alaafia.
  • A fẹ fun awọn ọmọ wa, bi a ṣe fẹ fun ara wa, awọn igbesi aye wa ni ile, ni ibi iṣẹ, ati ni ere lati jẹ igbesi aye ayọ ati Alaafia.
  • A mọ pe lati kọ iru awujọ bẹẹ nilo iyasọtọ, iṣẹ takuntakun, ati igboya.
  • A mọ pe ọpọlọpọ awọn iṣoro wa ni awujọ wa eyiti o jẹ orisun rogbodiyan ati iwa -ipa.
  • A mọ pe gbogbo ọta ibọn ti o yinbọn ati gbogbo bombu ti n gbamu jẹ ki iṣẹ yẹn nira sii.
  • A kọ lilo bombu ati ọta ibọn ati gbogbo awọn ilana ti iwa -ipa.
  • A ya ara wa si mimọ lati ṣiṣẹ pẹlu awọn aladugbo wa, nitosi ati jinna, lojoojumọ ati lojoojumọ, lati kọ awujọ alaafia yẹn ninu eyiti awọn ajalu ti a ti mọ jẹ iranti buburu ati ikilọ ti o tẹsiwaju.

Awọn ẹbun miiranÀtúnṣe

Williams gba Prize Peace People of Norway ni ọdun 1976, Award Golden Plate ti American Academy of Achievement ni ọdun 1977, [9] awọn Schweitzer Medallion for Courage, Martin Luther King, Jr. Award, Eleanor Roosevelt Award ni ọdun 1984, ati Frank Foundation Child Care International Oliver Award . Ni 1995, wọn fun un ni Rotary Club International “Paul Harris Fellowship” ati Papo fun Aami Ilé Alaafia. [1]

== Ebun alafia==

Williams ni ayika akoko ti o gba Nobel Peace Prize]] Ni idanimọ awọn akitiyan rẹ fun alaafia, Williams, papọ pẹlu ọrẹ rẹ Mairead Corrigan, di awọn olugba apapọ ti Nobel Peace Prize ni ọdun 1977 (ẹbun fun 1976). Ninu ọrọ itẹwọgba rẹ, Williams sọ pe, Fun awọn ti o ni ibatan pẹkipẹki, iranti ti o lagbara julọ ti ọsẹ yẹn ni iku ọdọ oloṣelu ijọba olominira kan ati iku awọn ọmọde mẹta ti ọkọ ayọkẹlẹ ọkunrin ti o ku naa kọlu. Imọ jinlẹ ti ibanujẹ ni omugo ti ko ni ironu ti iwa -ipa ti o tẹsiwaju jẹ tẹlẹ ṣaaju awọn iṣẹlẹ iṣẹlẹ ti ọsan oorun ti ọjọ 10 Oṣu Kẹjọ ọdun 1976. Ṣugbọn iku ti awọn ọdọ mẹrin wọnyẹn ni akoko ẹru kan ti iwa -ipa fa ibanujẹ yẹn lati gbamu, ati ṣẹda iṣeeṣe ti iṣipopada alafia gidi kan ... Bi o ṣe kan wa, gbogbo iku kan ni ọdun mẹjọ sẹhin, ati gbogbo iku ni gbogbo ogun ti o ti ja tẹlẹ duro fun igbesi aye lainidi, iṣẹ iya kan ti kọ. [10] Owo Ẹbun Alaafia ti pin ni dọgbadọgba laarin Williams ati Corrigan. Williams tọju ipin rẹ ti owo naa, ni sisọ pe ero rẹ ni lati lo lati ṣe igbega alafia kọja Ireland, ṣugbọn dojuko ibawi fun ipinnu rẹ. = "Olutọju"/> Ni ọdun 1978 Williams ya awọn ọna asopọ kuro pẹlu ronu Eniyan Alaafia, o si di dipo alapon fun alaafia ni awọn agbegbe miiran kaakiri agbaye.

Awọn ijiroro ati awọn ikowe alejoÀtúnṣe

Ni apejọ Awọn ijiroro Earth 2006 ni Brisbane, Williams sọ fun olugbo kan ti awọn ọmọ ile -iwe lakoko ọrọ kan lori awọn ipalara Ogun Iraaki pe “Ni bayi, Emi yoo fẹ lati pa George W. Bush.” [11] Lati ọjọ 17 si 20 Oṣu Kẹsan ọdun 2007, Williams fun lẹsẹsẹ awọn ikowe ni Gusu California: ni ọjọ 18 Oṣu Kẹsan, o gbekalẹ ikowe kan si agbegbe ile -ẹkọ ti Orange County ti o ni ẹtọ “Alaafia ni Agbaye Ni Iṣowo Gbogbo eniyan”; ati ni ọjọ 20 Oṣu Kẹsan o funni ni ikowe si awọn ọmọ ẹgbẹ 2,232 ti gbogbo eniyan, pẹlu 1,100 ile -iwe giga, ni Soka University of America. [12] Ni ọdun 2010, o funni ni ikẹkọ ni WE Day Toronto, iṣẹlẹ WE Charity ti n fun awọn ọmọ ile-iwe lagbara lati ṣiṣẹ laarin awọn agbegbe wọn, ati ni kariaye. [13]

Ninu aṣa ti o gbajumọÀtúnṣe

[2]

  1. 1.0 1.1 [https: //www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1976/williams- facts.html "Betty Williams"] Check |url= value (help).  Unknown parameter |oju opo wẹẹbu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |wiwọle-ọjọ= ignored (help)
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  4. E 'morta Betty Williams, premio Nobel e ideatrice della Città della Pace Àdàkọ:In lang}
  5. -pace-per-i-bambini-75216/ Il ricordo E 'morta Betty Williams. Portò in Basilicata la Città della pace per i bambini Àdàkọ:In lang
  6. nort-ireland-51955163 "Betty Williams: Onijagidijagan Alaafia ku ni ẹni ọdun 76". https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-n nort-ireland-51955163. 
  7. Badge, Peter. Turner, Nikolaus. ed. ISBN 978-3-527-40678-4. https: //archive.org/details/nobelfacesgaller00badg. 
  8. /bios/williams_bio.html Apejọ Awọn Alajọ Alafia Nobel Lua error in Module:Webarchive at line 395: attempt to concatenate field 'host' (a nil value).
  9. {{cite web | title = Golden Plate Awardees of Ile-ẹkọ giga ti Aṣeyọri ti Ilu Amẹrika | oju opo wẹẹbu = www.achievement.org | akede = Ile ẹkọ giga ti Aṣeyọri ti Amẹrika | url = https://achievement.org/our-history/golden-plate-awards/#public-service} }
  10. [http: //gos.sbc.edu/w/bwilliams.html "Awọn ẹbun Ọrọ - Betty Williams"] Check |url= value (help).  Unknown parameter |oju opo wẹẹbu= ignored (help)
  11. . https: //www.huffpost.com/entry/nobel-peace-laureate-i-wo_n_25717. 
  12. [https: //web.archive.org/web/20200224090234/https: //www.soka.edu/about/our-stories/peace-world-everybodys- business-betty-williams ""Alaafia ni Agbaye jẹ Iṣowo Gbogbo eniyan" nipasẹ Betty Williams"] Check |archive-url= value (help). Archived from [https: //www.soka. edu/nipa/awọn itan wa/alaafia-agbaye-everybodys-business-betty-williams the original] Check |url= value (help) on 24 February 2020.  Unknown parameter |ọjọ-wiwọle= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |ọjọ= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akede= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  13. [https: //toronto.ctvnews.ca/students-gather-at-acc-for-we-day-celebration-1.558391 https: //toronto.ctvnews.ca/students-gather-at-acc-for-we-day-celebration-1.558391] Check |url= value (help).  Unknown parameter |ọjọ-wiwọle= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |ọjọ= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akọle= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akede= ignored (help); Missing or empty |title= (help) < /ref> Nigbati on soro ni University of Bradford ṣaaju ki olugbo ti 200 ni Oṣu Kẹta ọdun 2011, Williams kilọ pe awọn obinrin Musulumi ọdọ lori ogba jẹ ipalara si awọn ikọlu lati ọdọ awọn ọmọ ẹbi ibinu, lakoko ti ile -ẹkọ giga ko ṣe diẹ lati ṣe iranlọwọ lati daabobo wọn. "Ti o ba ni ẹnikan lori ogba yii awọn ọdọbinrin wọnyi le lọ lati sọ, 'Mo bẹru' - ti o ko ba ṣe iyẹn nibi, iwọ n sọ eniyan di alaimọ nipa ko ṣe iranlọwọ fun awọn ọdọbinrin wọnyi, ṣe o ko ronu?" > . http: //www.thetelegraphandargus.co.uk/news/local /localbrad/8891679.Nobel_prize_winner_s_appeal_to_protect_Muslim_women_in_Bradford/. 
  14. [https: //www.upi.com/ Entertainment_News/2007/01/09/Nickelback-donates-video-sales-to-charity/11341170123623/ "Nickelback ṣetọrẹ awọn tita fidio si ifẹ"] Check |url= value (help).  Unknown parameter |oju opo wẹẹbu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |ọjọ-wiwọle= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |ọjọ= ignored (help)
  15. [http: //gos.sbc.edu/w/bwilliams.html "Awọn ẹbun Ọrọ - Betty Williams"] Check |url= value (help).  Unknown parameter |oju opo wẹẹbu= ignored (help)
  16. [https: // wẹẹbu. archive.org/web/20050909210229/http://www.peacepeople.com/PPDeclaration.htm https: // wẹẹbu. archive.org/web/20050909210229/http://www.peacepeople.com/PPDeclaration.htm] Check |archive-url= value (help). Archived from [http: //www.peacepeople.com/PPDeclaration.htm the original] Check |url= value (help) on 9 Kẹsán 2005.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akọle= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |wiwọle-ọjọ= ignored (help); Check date values in: |archive-date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)