Ghánà /ˈɡɑːnə/, je orílè-èdè ni ìhà ìwọ̀-oòrùn ilẹ̀ Afríkà. Ni ifowosi Republic of Ghánà, jẹ orilẹ-ede kan pẹlu Gulf of Guinea ati Okun Atlantiki, ni ipinlẹ Iwọ-oorun Afirika. Gbigba ibi-ilẹ kan ti 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghánà ni aala pẹlu Ivory Coast ni iwọ-oorun, Burkina Faso ni ariwa, Togo ni ila-oorun, ati Gulf of Guinea ati Okun Atlantiki ni guusu. Ilu Ghánà tumọ si "Ọba Ajagun" ni ede Soninke.[11]

Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Ghánà
Republic of Ghana

Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Location of Ghánà
Olùìlú
àti ìlú tótóbijùlọ
Accra
5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200
Àwọn èdè ìṣẹ́ọbaEnglish[2][3]
Lílò national languagesBritish English (official Language)
Àwọn ẹ̀yà ènìyàn
(2010[4][5])
Orúkọ aráàlúGhanaian
Ìjọba
• President
Nana Akufo-Addo
Mahamudu Bawumia
AṣòfinParliament
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Dominion
6 March 1957
• Republic
1 July 1960
28 April 1992
Ìtóbi
• Total
239,567 km2 (92,497 sq mi) (80th)
• Omi (%)
4.61 (11,000 km; 4,247 mi2)
Alábùgbé
• 2016 estimate
28,308,301[6] (45th)
• 2010 census
24,200,000[7]
• Ìdìmọ́ra
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$211.127 billion[8]
• Per capita
$6,998[8]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$68 billion[8]
• Per capita
$2,262[8]
Gini (2012)42.4[9]
medium
HDI (2017) 0.592[10]
medium · 140th
OwónínáGhanaian cedi (GHS)
Ibi àkókòUTC+0 (GMT)
Ojúọ̀nà ọkọ́right
Àmì tẹlifóònù+233
ISO 3166 codeGH
Internet TLD.gh

Ipinle akọkọ ti o wa titi ni agbegbe ti Ghánà loni lati ọjọ kẹsan ọdun 11, Ipinle Bono.[12] Ọpọlọpọ awọn ijọba ati awọn ijọba ti o farahan ni awọn ọrundun, eyiti eyiti o ni agbara julọ ni ijọba Dagbon [13] ati ijọba Ashanti.[14] Bibẹrẹ ni ọdun karundinlogun, ijọba Ilu Pọtugalii, atẹle pẹlu ọpọlọpọ awọn agbara Yuroopu miiran, dije agbegbe fun awọn ẹtọ iṣowo, titi ti Ijọba Gẹẹsi fi idi mulẹ iṣakoso ti etikun ni opin ọdun 19th. Ni atẹle lori ọgọrun ọdun ti atako abinibi, ohun ti o jẹ awọn aala Ghánà ni bayi tẹle awọn ila ti eyiti o jẹ awọn agbegbe ileto ijọba Gẹẹsi mẹrin ọtọtọ: Gold Coast, Ashanti, Awọn Agbegbe Ariwa ati Gẹẹsi Togoland. Awọn wọnyi ni iṣọkan gẹgẹ bi ijọba olominira laarin Ijọba apapọ Gẹẹsi ni Oṣu Kẹta Ọjọ 6, ọdun 1957.[15][16][17]

Olugbe Ghánà ti o to miliọnu 30[18] ni ọpọlọpọ awọn ẹya, ede ati ẹsin awọn ẹgbẹ. Gẹgẹbi ikaniyan ti 2010, 71.2% ti olugbe jẹ Kristiẹni, 17.6% jẹ Musulumi, ati 5,2% nṣe awọn igbagbọ aṣa. [19] Oniruuru ilẹ-aye ati imọ-jinlẹ ti awọn sakani lati awọn savannah ti etikun si awọn igbo ojo ti ilẹ olooru.

Orile-ede Ghánà jẹ ijọba tiwantiwa t’orilẹ-ede kan ti o jẹ oludari nipasẹ adari kan ti o jẹ ori ti orilẹ-ede ati olori ijọba..[20] Idagbasoke eto-ọrọ ti ndagba ti Ghánà ati eto oṣelu tiwantiwa ti jẹ ki o jẹ agbara agbegbe ni Iwọ-oorun Afirika.[21] O jẹ ọmọ ẹgbẹ ti Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, Economic Economic of West African States (ECOWAS), Ẹgbẹ 24 (G24) ati Agbaye ti Awọn Orilẹ-ede.[22]

ItanÀtúnṣe

 
16th-century Akan people Terracotta, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ghánà
 
An 1850 map showing the Akan people Kingdom of Ashanti within the Guinea region and surrounding regions in West Africa
 
18th-century Ashanti brass kuduo. Gold dust and nuggets were kept in kuduo, as were other items of personal value and significance. As receptacles for their owners' kra, or life force, kuduo were prominent features of ceremonies designed to honor and protect that individual.

A mọ Ghánà gẹgẹbi ọkan ninu awọn ijọba nla ni Bilad el-Sudan nipasẹ ọrundun kẹsan.[23]

Orile-ede Ghánà ni o wa ni Aarin ogoro ati Ọjọ-iwari nipasẹ ọpọlọpọ awọn ijọba Akan ti o bori pupọ julọ ni awọn agbegbe Gusu ati Central. Eyi pẹlu Ottoman Ashanti, Akwamu, Bonoman, Denkyira, ati ijọba Mankessim.[24]

Botilẹjẹpe agbegbe ti Ghánà ode oni ni Iwọ-oorun Afirika ti ni iriri ọpọlọpọ awọn agbeka olugbe, awọn Akan ti fidi rẹ mulẹ ni ọrundun karun-karun SK.[25][26] Ni ibẹrẹ ọrundun 11th, awọn Akan ti fidi mulẹ mulẹ ni ilu Akan ti wọn pe ni Bonoman, eyiti a daruko Ekun Brong-Ahafo.[25][27]

Lati ọrundun kẹẹdogun, Akans ti inu ohun ti a gbagbọ pe o ti jẹ agbegbe Bonoman, lati ṣẹda ọpọlọpọ awọn ilu Akan ti Ghánà, ni akọkọ da lori iṣowo wura.[28] Awọn ipinlẹ wọnyi pẹlu Bonoman (Ẹkun Brong-Ahafo), Ashanti (Ekun Ashanti), Denkyira (Western North region), ijọba Mankessim (Central Central), ati Akwamu (agbegbe Ila-oorun). Ni ọdun 19th, agbegbe ti iha gusu ti Ghana ni o wa ninu ijọba ti Ashanti, ọkan ninu awọn ipinlẹ ti o ni agbara julọ ni iha isa-sahara Afirika ṣaaju ibẹrẹ ti amunisin.[25] By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghánà was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism.[25]

Ijọba ti ijọba Ashanti ṣiṣẹ ni iṣaaju bi nẹtiwọọki alaimuṣinṣin, ati nikẹhin bi ijọba ti aarin pẹlu ilọsiwaju, iṣẹ-ṣiṣe amọja ti o ga julọ ti o da ni olu ilu Kumasi.[25] Ṣaaju si ifọwọkan Akan pẹlu awọn ara ilu Yuroopu, awọn eniyan Akan ti ṣẹda eto-ọrọ ti o ni ilọsiwaju ti o da lori pataki awọn ọja wura ati goolu lẹhinna ta pẹlu awọn ilu Afirika.[25][29]

Awọn ijọba akọkọ ti o mọ lati farahan ni Ilu Gana ti ode oni ni awọn ilu Mole-Dagbani. Mole-Dagomba wa lori ẹṣin lati Burkina Faso ti ode oni labẹ adari ẹyọkan, Naa Gbewaa.[30] Pẹlu awọn ohun ija ti o ti ni ilọsiwaju ati ti o da lori aṣẹ aringbungbun kan, wọn ni rọọrun gbogun ti wọn si tẹdo si awọn ilẹ awọn eniyan agbegbe ti Tendamba (awọn alufaa ọlọrun ilẹ) ṣe akoso wọn, fi idi ara wọn mulẹ gẹgẹ bi awọn alaṣẹ lori awọn agbegbe, ti wọn si ṣe Gambaga ni olu-ilu wọn.[31] Iku ti Naa Gbewaa fa ija ilu laarin awọn ọmọ rẹ, diẹ ninu awọn ti o ya ati ṣeto awọn ipinlẹ ọtọtọ pẹlu Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi, Nanumba ati Wala.


ItokasiÀtúnṣe

  1. "Emefa.myserver.org". Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  2. "Language and Religion". Ghana Embassy. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017. English is the official language of Ghana and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are, Ga, Dagomba, Akan and Ewe. 
  3. "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Government of Ghana. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  4. "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Government of Ghana. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  5. "People > Ethnic groups: Countries Compared". NationMaster. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  6. "2010 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2016". Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018. 
  7. Antoinette I. Mintah (2010). 2010 Provisional Census Results Out. 4 February 2011. Population Division, Ghana Government. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110615141322/http://www.ghana.gov.gh/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4712%3A2010-provisional-census-results-out&catid=88%3Adaily-news-summary&Itemid=236. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 25 May 2019. 
  9. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019. 
  10. "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018. 
  11. Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9.
  12. Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975) (in en). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. https://books.google.com/books?id=F3lyAAAAMAAJ. 
  13. Danver, Steven L (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. pp. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=vf4TBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA25&dq=Kingdom+of+Dagbon#q=Kingdom%20of%20Dagbon. 
  14. "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  15. Àdàkọ:Cite video
  16. "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  17. "Exploring Africa – Decolonization". exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  18. "Ghana Population (2019) – Worldometers". www.worldometers.info (in Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  19. "2010 Population & Housing Census: National Analytical Report" (PDF). Ghana Statistical Service. 2013. p. 63. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2018. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  20. CIA World FactBook. "Ghana". CIA World FactBook. CIA World FactBook. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved October 8. 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  21. Àṣìṣe ìtọ́kasí: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named South America and West Africa
  22. "Ghana-US relations". United States Department of State. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  23. Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8419-0431-6. 
  24. Title: Africa a Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson, Language: English Type: Documentary Year: 1984 Length: 114 min.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 "Pre-Colonial Period". Ghanaweb.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  26. "Pre-European Mining at Ashanti, Ghana" (PDF) (PDF). Pdmhs.com. October 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 8, 2020. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  27. Tvedten, Ige; Hersoug, Bjørn (1992). Fishing for Development: Small Scale Fisheries in Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-91-7106-327-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=Itt1hIbsbQsC&pg=PA60. Retrieved October 8, 2020. 
  28. The Techiman-Bono of Ghana: an ethnography of an Akan society Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1975
  29. "A Short History of Ashanti Gold Weights". Rubens.anu.edu.au. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  30. Jessica W (15 November 2011). "Invasion of the Peoples of the North". GhanaNation. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  31. Curtis M. (19 November 2011). "Ghana Articles: Dagomba". GhanaNation.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)