Ìṣí ojúewé ètò àkọ́kọ́

India, fun tonibise bi orile-ede Olominira ile India (Híndì: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also in other Indian languages), je orile-ede kan ni Guusu Asia. Ohun ni orile-ede keje titobijulo gege bi itobi jeografi, orile-ede keji toni iye awon eniyan julo pelu bi 1.18 egbegberunkeji eniyan, ati orile-ede oseluaralu toni iye awon eniyan julo lagbaye. O ja mo Okun India ni guusu, Okun arabu ni iwoorun, ati Ebado Benga ni ilaorun, India ni ile eti odo to je 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi).[15] O ni bode mo Pakistan ni iwoorun;[16] Saina, Nepal, ati Bhutan si ariwa; ati Bangladesh ati Burma ni ilaorun. India wa nitosi Sri Lanka, ati Maldives ti won wa ni Okun India.

Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Índíà
Republic of India
भारत गणराज्य*
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Horizontal tricolour flag (deep saffron, white, and green). In the center of the white is a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right,and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto "सत्यमेव जयते".
Àsìá
Motto"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
सत्यमेव जयते  (Devanāgarī)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Orin-ìyìn orílẹ̀-èdèJana Gana Mana
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
[2]
National Song[4]
Vande Mataram
I bow to thee, Mother
[3]
Image of globe centered on India, with India highlighted.
OlúìlúNew Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
ilú títóbijùlọ Mumbai
Èdè àlòṣiṣẹ́
Constitutional languages
Orúkọ aráàlú Ará Índíà
Ìjọba Federal republic,
parliamentary democracy[8]
 -  President Pranab Mukherjee
 -  Prime Minister Narendra Modi
 -  Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan
Aṣòfin Sansad
 -  Ilé Aṣòfin Àgbà Rajya Sabha
 -  Ilé Aṣòfin Kéreré Lok Sabha
Independence from United Kingdom 
 -  Declared 15 August 1947 
 -  Republic 26 January 1950 
Ààlà
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye ààlà 3,287,240 km2 (7th)
1,269,210 sq mi 
 -  Omi (%) 9.56
Alábùgbé
 -  Ìdíye 2009 1,198,003,000[9] (2nd)
 -  2001 census 1,028,610,328[10] 
 -  Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 364.4/km2 (32nd)
943.9/sq mi
GIO (PPP) ìdíye 2008
 -  Iye lápapọ̀ $3.298 trillion[11] (4th)
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $2,780[11] (130th)
GIO (onípípè) Ìdíye 2008
 -  Àpapọ̀ iye $1.206 trillion[11] (12th)
 -  Ti ẹnikọ̀ọ̀kan $1,017[11] (143rd)
Gini (2004) 36.8[12] 
HDI (2007) 0.612[13] (medium) (134th)
Owóníná Indian rupee (₨) (INR)
Àkókò ilẹ̀àmùrè IST (UTC+5:30)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:30)
Ìwakọ̀ ní ọwọ́ left
Àmìọ̀rọ̀ Internet .in
Àmìọ̀rọ̀o tẹlifóònù 91

Gege bi ile Asa-Olaju Afonifoji Indus ati agbegbe ojuona owo latayeraye ati awon ile obaluaye, abeorile India je didamo fun ola aje ati asa re kakiri atigba to ti wa.[17] Esin nla merin, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism ati Sikhism ni won bere latibe, nigbati Zoroastrianism, Esin Ju, Esin Kristi ati Imale de sibe ni egberundun akoko IO (CE) won si kopa ninu bi orisirisi asa agbegbe na seri. Diedie o je fifamora latowo British East India Company lati ibere orundun ikejidinlogun, o si di ile amusin Ile-oba Isodokan lati arin orundun ikandinlogun, India di orile-ede alominira ni 1947 leyin akitiyan fun isominira to se pataki fun isatako alaise jagidijagan kakiri.[18]

India je orile-ede olominira kan to ni ipinle 28 ati awon agbegbe isokan meje pelu sistemu onileasofin oseluaralu. Okowo India ni okowo ikokanla titobijulo gege bi olorujo GDP lagbaye ati ikerin titobijulo gege bi ibamu agbara iraja. Otun je omo egbe Ajoni awon Orile-ede, G-20, BRIC, SAFTA ati Agbajo Owo Agbaye. India je orile-ede toni ohun-ijagun bombu inuatomu, o si ni ile-ise ologun ikewa ton nawojulo pelu ile-ise ologun adigun keji titobijulo lagbaye. Atunse okowo to bere lati 1991 ti so India di ikan ninu awon okowo to n dagba kiakia julo lagbaye;[19] sibesibe, aini si tun ba ja,[20] aimookomooka, iwa-ibaje, arun, ati aijeunkanu. Gege bi awujo esin olopolopo, eledepupo ati eleya eniyan pupo, India tun je ibugbe fun opolopo awon eran-igbe ni opolopo ibi alaabo.

National symbols of the Republic of India (Official)
National animal 2005-bandipur-tusker.jpg
National bird Pavo muticus (Tierpark Berlin) - 1017-899-(118).jpg
National tree Banyan tree on the banks of Khadakwasla Dam.jpg
National flower Sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.jpg
National heritage animal Panthera tigris.jpg
National aquatic marine mammal PlatanistaHardwicke.jpg
National reptile King-Cobra.jpg
National heritage mammal Hanuman Langur.jpg
National fruit An Unripe Mango Of Ratnagiri (India).JPG
National temple New Delhi Temple.jpg
National river River Ganges.JPG
National mountain Nanda Devi 2006.JPG

Àwọn àkóónú

Orísun ìtumọ̀ ọ̀rọ̀Àtúnṣe

India (pípè /ˈɪndiə/) gege bi oruko wa lati Indus, to wa lati oro Persia Atijo Hindu, lati Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu, oruko ibile fun Odo Indus.[21] Awon Griiki ayeijoun n pe awon ara India ni Indoi (Ινδοί), awon eniyan Indus.[22] Ilana Ibagbepo ile India ati lilo oro towopo ninu opo awon ede India bakanna tun seidamo Bharat (pipe [ˈbʱɑːrʌt̪]  (  ẹ tẹ́tí gbọ́)) gege bi oruko onibise iru kanna.[23] Bharat gege bi oruko wa lati oruko oba olokiki Bharata ninu awon Itan-Awaso Hindu. Hindustan ([hɪnd̪ʊˈstɑːn]  (  ẹ tẹ́tí gbọ́)), ni berebere to je oro Persia fun “Ile Hindus” lati toka si apaariwa India, bakanna tun lilo gege bi oruko gbogbo India.[24]

ÌtànÀtúnṣe

Awon ibugbe apata Igba Okuta pelu awon iyaworan ni Bhimbetka rock shelters ni Madhya Pradesh ni eri igbe eniyan pipejulo ni India. Awon ibudo akoko ti a mo bere ni odun to ju 9,000 seyin lo, diedie o si dagba soke si Indus Valley Civilisation,[25] ti ojo ori re to odun 3400 BCE ni apaiwoorun India. Eyi je titele pelu Vedic period, to se ipilese Esin Hindu ati awon asa miran igba ibere awujo India, o si pari ni awon odun 500 BCE. Lati bi 550 BCE, opolopo awon ile-oba alominira ati orile-ede olominira ti a mo bi Mahajanapadas je didasile kakiri ibe.[26]

 
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, sixth century

Ni orundun keta KIO (BCE), opo gbogbo Guusu Asia je piparapo di Ileobaluaye Maurya latowo Chandragupta Maurya o si lokunkun ni asiko Ashoka Olokiki.[27] Lati igba orundun keta IO (CE), ijoba iran Gupta samojuto igba ti a mo bi ancient "Igba Oniwura India ayeijoun."[28][29] Awon ileobaluaye ni Apaguusu India je kikopomo gbogbo awon ti Chalukya, ti Cholas ati ti Vijayanagara Empire. Sayensi, teknoloji, ise-ero, ise-ona, ogbon, ede, litireso, mathematiiki, itorawo, esin ati imo-oye di olokunkun labe itoju awon oba wonyi.

Leyin awon iborile lati Arin Asia larin orundun 10th ati 12th, opo Ariwa India ni won bo si abe ijoba Delhi Sultanate ati leyin eyi sabe Ileobaluaye Mughal. Labe isejoba Akbar the Great, India gbadun idagbasoke asa ati okowo pupo ati irepo esin.[30][31] Awon obaluaye Mughal diedie fe ile won si pupo lati dori apa nla abeorile. Sibesibe, ni Ariwa-Apailaorun India, alagbara to joba ibe ni ileoba Ahom ti Assam, gege bi ikan ninu awon ileoba ti won lodi si ijobalenilori Mughal. Ihalemo ninla akoko si agbara ijoba Mughal wa latodo oba Hindu Rajput kan Maha Rana Pratap ti Mewar ni orundun 16th ati leyin eyi latodo orile-ede Hindu kan to n je adapapo Maratha, to joba lori opo India ni arin orundun 18th.[32]

Lati orundun 16th, awon alagbara ara Europe bi Portugal, Hollandi, Fransi, ati Iparapo Ileoba se idasile ibudo owo (trading posts) be sini leyin eyi won lo anfani ti awon ija abele ibe fa wa lati sedasile awon ibiamusin nibe. Nigba to fi di 1856, opo India ti bo sabe idari British East India Company.[33] Odun kan leyin eyi, igbogundi kakiri awon eyo ologun olodi ijoba ati awon ileoba, ti a mo bi Ogun Ilominira Akoko India tabi Sepoy Mutiny, koju idari ile-ise yi gidigidi sugbon ko yori si rere. Nitori aidurorege, India bo si abe isejoba taara Oba Alade Britani.

 
Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, 1937. Nehru would go on to become India's first prime minister in 1947.

Ni orundun 20th, akitiyan fun ilominira kakiri orile-ede bere latowo Indian National Congress ati awon agbajo oloselu miran.[34] Olori India Mahatma Gandhi lewaju awon egbegberun eniyan ni opolopo igbese torile-ede fun aigboran araalu aini-jagidijagan .[18]

Ni ojo 15 osu kejo 1947, India gba ilominira kuro lowo isejoba Britani, sugbon nigba kanna awon agbegbe ogunlogo Musulum je pipinniya lati da orile-ede otooto Pakistan.[35] Ni ojo 26 osi kinni 1950, India di orile-ede olominira be sini ilana ibagbepo tuntun je gbigbe jade.[36]

Lati igba ilominira, India ti ni awon isoro lati owojagidijagan esin, casteism, naxalism, isedaniloro ati latowo awon igbogunti oludase agbegbe, agaga ni Jammu ati Kashmir ati Ariwailaorun India. Lati igba awon odun 1990 awon