Ìṣí ojúewé ètò àkọ́kọ́

Áfríkà ni orile keji titobijulo ati toni awon eniyan julo lagbaye leyin Asia. Ni bi 30.2 egbegberun km² (11.7 million sq mi) lapapo mo awon erekusu to sunmo, ile re je 6% apapo gbogbo oju Aye ati 20.4% gbogbo ile Aye.[2] Pelu egbegberunkeji kan eniyan (ni 2009, e wo tabili) ni awon agbegbe 61, eyi je bi 14.72% gbogbo iye eniyan Agbaye. Ni ariwa re ni Okun Mediterraneani wa, si ariwailaorun re ni Ilaodo Suez ati Okun Pupa wa legbe Sinai Peninsula, si guusuilaorun re ni Okun India, ati si iwoorun re ni Okun Atlantiki wa. Afrika ni orile-ede 54 lapapo mo Madagascar, opolopo erekusu ati orile-ede Olominira Sahrawi Arabu Toseluaralu, to je omo egbe Isokan Afrika botilejepe Morocco lodi si eyi.

Áfríkà
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Ààlà 30,221,532 km2 (11,668,598.7 sq mi)
Olùgbé 1,000,010,000[1] (2005, 2nd)
Ìṣúpọ̀ olùgbé 30.51 km2 (about 80/sq mi)
Demonym African
Àwọn orílẹ̀-èdè 53 (List of countries)
Dependencies
Àwọn èdè List of languages
Time Zones UTC-1 to UTC+4
Àwọn ìlú tótóbijùlọ List of cities

Afrika, agaga gbongan apailaorun Afrika, je gbigba lopolopo latowo awon awujo onisayensi pe ibe ni ibi ti awon eniyan ti bere ati Hominidae clade (great apes), gege bi o se han pelu iwari awon hominids pipejulo ati awon babanla won, ati awon ti won wa leyin won ti won peju bi odun legbegberun meje seyin – lapapomo Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – pelu eyi to pejulo ninu won Homo sapiens (eniyan odeoni) ti o je wiwari ni Ethiopia to je odun bi 200,000 seyin.[3]

Afrika bo ibugedemeji mole, o si ni orisirisi awon agbegbe ojuojo; o je orile kan soso to gun lati agbegbe apaariwa aloworo de apaguusu alaworo.[4]

Àwọn àkóónú

Orisun itumo oroÀtúnṣe

Afri ni oruko awon eniyan ti won gbe ni Ariwa Afrika leba Carthage. Oruko awon wonyi je siso mo "afar" ti awon Finiki, to tumosi "eruku", sugbon ero 1981 kan[5] ti so pe o wa lati oro ede Berber ifri tabi Ifran totumosi "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[6] Afrika tabi Ifri tabi Afer[6] ni oruko Banu Ifran lati Algeria ati Tripolitania (Eya Berber ti Yafran).[7]

Labe ijoba awon Ara Romu, Carthage di oluilu Igberiko Afrika, to tun je kikomo apa eba odo Libya oni. "-ka" ("ca") to je ilemeyin Afrika je awon Ara Romu to tokasi "orile-ede tabi ile".[8] Bakanna, ile-oba Musulumi ayeijoun Ifriqiya to wa leyin, ti a mo loni bi Tunisia, na tun lo iru oruko yi.

Awon orisun itumo miran ti won ti da laba bi orisun oruko ijoun "Afrika":

  • omo Ju olukoitan ni orundun 1st Flavius Josephus (Ant. 1.15) so pe o je sisoloruko fun Epher, omokunrin omoomo Abraham gege bi Gen. 25:4, ti awon omomo re, bo se so, pe won bori Libya.
  • oro Latin aprica ("ihan orun"; "sunny") ti Isidore of Seville menu ba ninu Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
  • oro Griiki aphrike (Αφρική), to tumosi "aini otutu." Olukoitan Leo Africanus (1488–1554) lo damoran yi, to daba oro Griiki phrike (φρίκη, to tumosi "otutu ati eru"), lapapo mo "a-", lati tumosi "ile ti ko ni otutu ati eru.
  • Massey, ni 1881, mu orisun itumo kan wa lati oro Egypti af-rui-ka, "di dori ko ojuona Ka." Ka tokasi ibiomo. Nipa eyi Afrika je fun awon Ara Egypti, "ile ibimo."[9]

ItanÀtúnṣe

Itan atijoÀtúnṣe

Ni ibere Igba Mesosoik, Afrika je jijapo mo awon orile Aye yioku gege bi Pangea.[10] Afrika pin awon fauna kanna ti orilegbangba yi ti o je sisori lowo awon theropods, prosauropods ati ornithischians akokolo nigbati igba Trias wa sopin.[10] Awon idokuta opin je wiwari kakiri Africa, sugbon won wopo ni guusu ju ariwa lo.[10] Ila to ya igba Triassic soto si Jurassic lo falasi ibere awon isele iparun to ni ip ni lagbaye, botilejepe strata Afrika igba yi ko ti je gbigbewo daada.[10]

Awon ipele ile igba Ibere Jurassik pinkiri lona kanna bi ti isun Late Triassic, with more common outcrops in the south and less common fossil beds which are predominated by tracks to the north.[10] As the Jurassic proceeded, larger and more iconic groups of dinosaurs like sauropods and ornithopods proliferated in Africa.[10] Middle Jurassic strata are neither well represented nor well studied in Africa.[10] Late Jurassic strata are also poorly represented apart from the spectacular Tendaguru fauna in Tanzania.[10] The Late Jurassic life of Tendaguru is very similar to that found in western North America's Morrison Formation.[10]

Orundun 9k–18kÀtúnṣe

Afrika ki o to di ibialamusin o se e se ki o ni orisirisi orile-ede otooto to ju 10,000 lo ati asejoba[11] to ni orisirisi ilana ati agbajo oloselu. Ninu awon wonyi ni idipo ebi kekere awon asode bi awon San ni apaguusu Afrika; titobi, awon adipo adimule bi awon idipo ibatan ebi awon elede Bantu ni apaarin ati apaguusu Afrika, awon adipo ibatan adimule gidigidi ni Ibi Iwo Ori Afrika, awon ileoba Saheli titobi, ati awon ilu-orilejoba ati awon ileoba aladawa bi ti awon Yoruba ni Iwoorun Afrika, ati awon ilu oja etiodo awon Swahili ni Ilaorun Afrika.

Nigba to fi di orundun 9k SK orisirisi awon orilejoba obairanderan, ti awon orilejoba Hausa akoko wa ninu won, ti san kakiri saffana abe-sahara lati awon agbegbe apaiwoorun de ibiarin Sudan. Awon to lagbarajulo larin awon orilejoba wonyi ni Ghana, Gao, ati Kanem-Bornu Empire. Agbara Ghana dinku ni orundun 11k sugbon Ileobaluaye Mali ropo re, eyi lo si di opo gbogbo apaiwoorun Afrika mu ni orundun 13k. Kanem gba esin Imale ni orundun 11k. Be sini ni awon agbegbe igbo etiodo Iwoorun Afrika, awon ileoba alominira jadide laini ipa kankan latodo ariwa Musulumi.


 
Ashanti yam ceremony, 19th century by Thomas E. Bowdich

Ife, to je akoko larin awon ilu-orilejoba tabi ileoba Yoruba, sedasile ijoba labe oba, ton unje Ooni. Ife je ibi pataki esin ati asa ni Afrika, ati fun asa ibile ere gbigbe. Iru ifijuwe ijoba Ile-Ife je gbigbamulo ni Oyo, nibiti awon oba, ti won unje Alaafin ti figba kan joba lori opo iye iluorilejoba ati ileoba Yoruba miran ati ti awon ti won ko je Yoruba, Ileoba Dahomey awon Fon je ibi ti won ko so ede Yoruba labe ijoba Oyo.


Awon Almoraffidi, je obairanderan Beriberi lati Sahara ti won fon kiri ariwaapaiwoorun Afrika ati peninsula Iberian nigba orundun 11k.[12] Banu Hilal ati Banu Ma'qil je akopo aon eya Arab Bedouin lati Arabian peninsula ti on kolo si iwoorun lati Egypt larin orundun 11k ati 13k. Ikoreokere fa idapo awon Arabu ati Beriberi, nibi ti awon ara ile ti di Arabu,[13] be sini asa Arabu gba apilese asa ibile ibe, labe isokan Islam.[14]

Awon agbegbeÀtúnṣe

The countries in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated.

 
Regions of Africa:      Northern Africa      Western Africa      Middle Africa      Eastern Africa      Southern Africa
 
 
 
Physical map of Africa
 
Satellite photo of Africa
 
Political map of Africa
Orúkọ agbègbè[15] àti
ilẹ̀, pẹ̀lú asìá
Ààlà
(km²)
Alábùgbé
(2009 est) except where noted
Ìṣúpọ̀
(per km²)
Olúìlú
Eastern Africa: 6,384,904 316,053,651 49.5
  Burundi 27,830 8,988,091[16] 322.9 Bujumbura
  Comoros 2,170 752,438[16] 346.7 Moroni
  Djibouti 23,000 516,055[16] 22.4 Djibouti
  Eritrea 121,320 5,647,168[16] 46.5 Asmara
  Ethiopia 1,127,127 85,237,338[16] 75.6 Addis Ababa
  Kenya 582,650 39,002,772[16] 66.0 Nairobi
  Madagascar 587,040 20,653,556[16] 35.1 Antananarivo
  Malawi 118,480 14,268,711[16] 120.4 Lilongwe
  Mauritius 2,040 1,284,264[16] 629.5 Port Louis
  Mayotte (France) 374 223,765[16] 489.7 Mamoudzou
  Mozambique 801,590 21,669,278[16] 27.0 Maputo
  Réunion (France) 2,512 743,981(2002) 296.2 Saint-Denis
 
Rwanda
26,338 10,473,282[16] 397.6 Kigali
  Seychelles 455 87,476[16] 192.2 Victoria
  Somalia 637,657 9,832,017[16] 15.4 Mogadishu
  Tanzania 945,087 41,048,532[16] 43.3 Dodoma
 
Uganda
236,040 32,369,558[16] 137.1 Kampala
  Zambia 752,614 11,862,740[16] 15.7 Lusaka
Middle Africa: 6,613,253 121,585,754 18.4
  Angola 1,246,700 12,799,293[16] 10.3 Luanda
  Cameroon 475,440 18,879,301[16] 39.7 Yaoundé
  Central African Republic 622,984 4,511,488[16] 7.2 Bangui
  Chad 1,284,000 10,329,208[16] 8.0 N'Djamena
 
Congo
342,000 4,012,809[16] 11.7 Brazzaville
 
Democratic Republic of the Congo
2,345,410 68,692,542[16] 29.2 Kinshasa
  Equatorial Guinea 28,051 633,441[16] 22.6 Malabo
  Gabon 267,667 1,514,993[16] 5.6 Libreville
  São Tomé and Príncipe 1,001 212,679[16] 212.4 São Tomé
Northern Africa: 8,533,021 211,087,622 24.7
  Algeria 2,381,740 34,178,188[16] 14.3 Algiers
  Egypt[17] 1,001,450 83,082,869[16] total, Asia 1.4m 82.9 Cairo
  Libya 1,759,540 6,310,434[16] 3.6 Tripoli
  Morocco 446,550 34,859,364[16] 78.0 Rabat
 
Sudan
2,505,810 41,087,825[16] 16.4 Khartoum
  Tunisia 163,610 10,486,339[16] 64.1 Tunis
  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[18] 266,000 405,210[16] 1.5 El Aaiún
Spanish and Portuguese territories in Northern Africa:
  Canary Islands (Spain)[19] 7,492 1,694,477(2001) 226.2 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
  Ceuta (Spain)[20] 20 71,505(2001) 3,575.2
  Madeira Islands (Portugal)[21] 797 245,000(2001) 307.4 Funchal
  Melilla (Spain)[22] 12 66,411(2001) 5,534.2
Southern Africa: 2,693,418 56,406,762 20.9
  Botswana 600,370 1,990,876[16] 3.3 Gaborone
 
Lesotho
30,355 2,130,819[16] 70.2 Maseru
  Zimbabwe 390,580 11,392,629[16] 29.1 Harare
  Namibia 825,418 2,108,665[16] 2.6 Windhoek
  South Africa 1,219,912 49,052,489[16] 40.2 Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria[23]
  Swaziland 17,363 1,123,913[16] 64.7 Mbabane
Western Africa: 6,144,013 296,186,492 48.2
  Benin 112,620 8,791,832[16] 78.0 Porto-Novo
 
Burkina Faso
274,200 15,746,232[16] 57.4 Ouagadougou
  Cape Verde 4,033 429,474[16] 107.3 Praia
  Côte d'Ivoire 322,460 20,617,068[16] 63.9 Abidjan,[24] Yamoussoukro
 
Gambia
11,300 1,782,893[16] 157.7 Banjul
  Ghana 239,460 23,832,495[16] 99.5 Accra
  Guinea 245,857 10,057,975[16] 40.9 Conakry
  Guinea-Bissau 36,120 1,533,964[16] 42.5 Bissau
 
Liberia
111,370 3,441,790[16] 30.9 Monrovia
  Mali 1,240,000 12,666,987[16] 10.2 Bamako
 
Mauritania
1,030,700 3,129,486[16] 3.0 Nouakchott
  Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252[16] 12.1 Niamey
  Nigeria 923,768 149,229,090[16] 161.5 Abuja
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (UK) 410 7,637[16] 14.4 Jamestown
  Senegal 196,190 13,711,597[16] 69.9 Dakar
  Sierra Leone 71,740 6,440,053[16] 89.9 Freetown
  Togo 56,785 6,019,877[16] 106.0 Lomé
Africa Total 30,368,609 1,001,320,281 33.0




ItokasiÀtúnṣe

  1. "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision" United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division)
  2. Sayre, April Pulley. (1999) Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  3. "Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: Feb. 16, 2005". 
  4. Visual Geography. "Africa. General info". Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  5. Names of countries, Decret and Fantar, 1981
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Berbers, by Geo. Babington Michell, p 161, 1903, Journal of Royal African people book on ligne
  7. Itineraria Phoenicia, Edward Lipinski, Peeters Publishers, p200, 2004, ISBN 90-429-1344-4 Book on ligne
  8. "Consultos.com etymology". 
  9. 'Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey'
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Jacobs, Louis L. (1997). "African Dinosaurs." Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Edited by Phillip J. Currie and Kevin Padian. Academic Press. pp. 2–4.
  11. Meredith, Martin (January 20, 2006). "The Fate of Africa – A Survey of Fifty Years of Independence". washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2006/01/11/DI2006011101372.html. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  12. Glick, Thomas F. Islamic And Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. (2005) Brill Academic Publishers page 37
  13. "Mauritania – Arab invasions". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  14. Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa
  15. Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 16.17 16.18 16.19 16.20 16.21 16.22 16.23 16.24 16.25 16.26 16.27 16.28 16.29 16.30 16.31 16.32 16.33 16.34 16.35 16.36 16.37 16.38 16.39 16.40 16.41 16.42 16.43 16.44 16.45 16.46 16.47 16.48 16.49 16.50 16.51 16.52 16.53 16.54 16.55 USCensusBureau:Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2009
  17. Egypt is generally considered a transcontinental country in Northern Africa (UN region) and Western Asia; population and area figures are for African portion only, west of the Suez Canal.
  18. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is recognized as a sovereign state by the African Union, however, Morocco claims the entirety of the country as Morocco's own Southern Provinces, and has occupied most of its territory since it declared its independence from Spain in 1976. Morrocco's occupation and annexation of this territory has not been recognized internationally.
  19. The Spanish Canary Islands, of which Las Palmas de Gran Canaria are Santa Cruz de Tenerife are co-capitals, are often considered part of Northern Africa due to their relative proximity to Morocco and Western Sahara; population and area figures are for 2001.
  20. The Spanish exclave of Ceuta is surrounded on land by Morocco in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001.
  21. The Portuguese Madeira Islands are often considered part of Northern Africa due to their relative proximity to Morocco; population and area figures are for 2001.
  22. The Spanish exclave of Melilla is surrounded on land by Morocco in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001.
  23. Bloemfontein is the judicial capital of South Africa, while Cape Town is its legislative seat, and Pretoria is the country's administrative seat.
  24. Yamoussoukro is the official capital of Côte d'Ivoire, while Abidjan is the de facto seat.