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Sílíkọ́nù, a tetravalent metalloid, is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery: silicon was first prepared and characterized in pure form in 1823. In 1808, it was given the name silicium (from Látìnì: silicis, flints), with an -ium word-ending to suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-English languages. However, its final English name, first suggested in 1817, reflects the more physically similar elements carbon and boron.
|Ìhànsójú||crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces|
|Ìwúwo átọ̀mù Ar, std(Si)||[28.084, 28.086] conventional: 28.085|
|Sílíkọ́nù ní orí tábìlì àyè|
|Nọ́mbà átọ̀mù (Z)||14|
|Ẹgbẹ́||group 14 (carbon group)|
|Ìtò ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù||[Ne] 3s2 3p2|
|Iye ẹ̀lẹ́ktrọ́nù lórí ìpele kọ̀ọ̀kan||2, 8, 4|
|Àwọn ohun ìní ara|
|Ìfarahàn at STP||solid|
|Ìgbà ìyọ́||1687 K (1414 °C, 2577 °F)|
|Ígbà ìhó||3538 K (3265 °C, 5909 °F)|
|Kíki (near r.t.)||2.3290 g/cm3|
|when liquid (at m.p.)||2.57 g/cm3|
|Heat of fusion||50.21 kJ/mol|
|Heat of||359 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||19.789 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 Àdàkọ:Infobox element/symbol-to-oxidation-state/comment|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 1.90|
|Atomic radius||empirical: 111 pm|
|Covalent radius||111 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||210 pm|
|Spectral lines of sílíkọ́nù|
|Speed of sound thin rod||8433 m/s (at 20 °C)|
|Thermal expansion||2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)|
|Thermal conductivity||149 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||103 Ω·m (at 20 °C)|
|Young's modulus||130-188 GPa|
|Shear modulus||51-80 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||97.6 GPa|
|Poisson ratio||0.064 - 0.28|
|Prediction||Antoine Lavoisier (1787)|
|Discovery||Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1824)|
|First isolation||Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1824)|
|Named by||Thomas Thomson (1831)|
|Main isotopes of sílíkọ́nù|
Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature. It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.
Most silicon is used commercially without being separated, and indeed often with little processing of compounds from nature. These include direct industrial building-use of clays, silica sand and stone. Silica is used in ceramic brick. Silicate goes into Portland cement for mortar and stucco, and when combined with silica sand and gravel, to make concrete. Silicates are also in whiteware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional quartz-based soda-lime glass. More modern silicon compounds such as silicon carbide form abrasives and high-strength ceramics. Silicon is the basis of the ubiquitous synthetic silicon-based polymers called silicones.
Elemental silicon also has a large impact on the modern world economy. Although most free silicon is used in the steel refining, aluminum-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica), the relatively small portion of very highly purified silicon that is used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is perhaps even more critical. Because of wide use of silicon in integrated circuits, the basis of most computers, a great deal of modern technology depends on it.
Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals, however various sea sponges as well as microorganisms like diatoms need silicon in order to have structure. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses.
|Àyọkà yìí tàbí apá rẹ̀ únfẹ́ àtúnṣe sí.|
- "New Type of Zero-Valent Tin Compound". Chemistry Europe. 27 August 2016.
- Ram, R. S. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD". J. Mol. Spectr. 190 (2): 341–352. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1998.7582. PMID 9668026. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/184.pdf.
- Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
- Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Àdàkọ:RubberBible86th
-  Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
- Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education: 1386–1412.
- Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397.
- Ram, R. S. et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD". J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/184.pdf.
- Nave, R. Abundances of the Elements in the Earth's Crust, Georgia State University
- Nielsen, FH (1984). "Ultratrace Elements in Nutrition". Annual Review of Nutrition 4: 21–41. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.000321. PMID 6087860.